Glossary

A

AHDC/CS (Automatic Hardware Direction Control / Carrier Sense)
Since RS-485 is bidirectional which means the driver is turned ON only when it needs to transmit some data, otherwise it is floating. SUNIX developed a new design to control the direction of driver (ON or OFF) automatically which is called Auto Hardware Direction Control/Carrier Sense. AHDC/CS™ works on the same principle and only turns on the driver when UART needs to transmits some data; but the advantage is that AHDC/CS™ will check to see if the bus is idle or not before it starts transmission.If the bus is not idle (some data flows in the bus), then it will postpone the transmission of UART until the bus is idle.This is for the CS (carrier sense) part.
ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)
ASIC chips are specially designed chips that provide unique functions. ASIC chips can replace general-purpose commercial logic chips, and integrate several functions or logic control blocks into one single chip, lowering manufacturing cost and simplifying circuit board design. SUNIX designed its own ASIC chipset that are used in SUNIX serial products.
Asynchronous Communication
Asynchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which there is no timing requirement for transmission, and in which the start of each individual character is signaled by the transmitting device.
Auto-MDI/MDI-X
Auto-MDI/MDI-X function automatically adjusts between straight-through and crossover cables, namely, the function automatically switch the transmission and reception.
Auto Negotiation
Auto-negotiation function intelligently detects and determines the transmission speeds between 10/100/1000Mbps and Hull-/half-duplex operation modes. This function eliminates the setup of manual switching between speeds and operation speeds. Besides, Auto-negotiation works flexibly with Regular, Fast, and Gigabit Ethernet, so you don't have to upgrade your other networked equipment all together.

B

Baud Rate
Baud rate is related to transmission speed. As far as RS-232/422/485 interfaces are concerned, baud rate is measured in bps (bits per second).

D

DCE (Data Communication Equipment)
DCE stands for Data Communication Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. The basic function of a DCE is to convert data from one interface, such as a digital signal, to another interface, such as an analog signal. One example of DCE is a modem.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. Examples of DTE are computers,printers, and terminals.

E

ELITE Ring
This is SUNIX proprietary feature which provides communication redundancy in shortest time. The recovery time is less than 10milliseconds thus providing stability to Industrial and mission critical networks. Typically, the managed switches are connected in series and the last switch is connected back to the first one. In such connection, you can implement ELITE Ring and Rapid Super Ring technology.

F

FIFO (First In First Out)
FIFO is a term that describes the behavior of some buffers. FIFO buffers send out characters in the order that they are received.FIFO buffers are used to reduce the frequency of interrupt processes for UART chips, such as the C16550C, used in serial communications.
Flow Control
Flow Control is necessary to regulate data flow between 2 devices with dramatically different data transmission speeds (such as a dot matrix serial printer and an RS-232 interface connection). Flow Control is needed to regulate data flow,to ensure that the two devices can communicate with minimal loss of data.
RS-232 communication uses one of two basic approaches to enforce Flow Control.
Software approach: XON/XOFF XON (0x11) and XOFF (0x13) are defined as special control codes for use during communication.The 2 codes are transmitted along with data characters. The operating scheme is straightforward.
Hardware approach: RTS/CTS RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send) are separate signals, sent on separate wires,used for hardware Flow Control. RTS is an output signal that enables/disables data transmission for the other device.CTS is an input signal allowing the other device to enable/disable data transmission. The drawback to this approach is that 2 more wires are needed, but it also provides the capability to send binary data.

I

IEEE802.11 a / b / g

IEEE802.11 is wireless related standard. 802.11a is 5.xG, while both b and g is 2.4G. Of the three, 802.11b can cover the widest area but at the same time its data rate is the lowest with throughput rate around 4-5Mbps. The longer the distance,the lower the throughput rate becomes

O

Optical Isolation
Communications devices connected by long cables may be damaged by the mismatch between ground voltage levels at the two ends of the wire. Optical isolation uses photo cells at both ends of the line to isolate the devices' sensitive components from this type of electrical damage.

P

Parallel Communication
Parallel communication refers to when data is transmitted byte-by-byte, i.e., all bits of one or more bytes are transmitted simultaneously over separate wires.
Passive Multiport Board
A passive multiport board is equipped with UART chips and the necessary peripheral ICs. All the data transmit/receive processing is done by the motherboard CPU. This creates a high workload for the CPU, and consequently can only be used for limited ports. However, passive / non-intelligent multiport boards are an economical and robust solution for small scale applications.
PoE
A solution where electrical current is run to networking hardware over the Ethernet Category 5 or higher data cabling.

R

RS-232
RS-232 is a serial communications standard that provides asynchronous communication capabilities,such as hardware flow control, software flow control, and parity check. It has been widely used for decades.Almost all gears, instruments with digital control interface, and communications devices are equipped with the RS-232 interface. The typical transmission speed of an RS-232 connection is 9600 bps over a maximum distance of 15 meters.
RS-422
RS-422 is a serial communications standard that provides a much longer transmission distance,but fewer signal lines compared to RS-232. RS-422 uses differential transmission technology, and thus provides high-speed transmission of up to 10 Mbps. The maximum transmission distance is 1.2 km at a transmission speed of 9600 bps.
RS-485
RS-485 is an enhanced version of RS-422. It uses a 2-wire bus topology, and is compatible with the RS-422 interface. By using an RS-485 2-wire bus, you can establish a very economical network. However, RS-485 only defines electrical signal specifications; users must define the software protocol themselves.

S

Service Charge
Before starting out-of-warranty repairs, we will send you a "Repair Quotation" with estimated contents. And we will start till receiving your authorization and payment.
Serial Communication
Serial communication refers to when data is transmitted bit-by-bit,or sequentially, over a single wire.
Surge Protection
TOV (Transient Over Voltages), which come from lightning, electrostatic discharges, and other forms of high voltage,is one of the major causes of equipment damage. A surge protector absorbs TOV to effectively protect the equipment.
Switch
Switch is an intelligent device that manages the network traffic smoothly & efficiently. Switches are fundamental part of many networks because they speed things up. Switches allow different nodes (a network connection point, typically a computer) of a network to communicate directly with one another.
Synchronous Communication
Synchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which a common timing signal is established that dictates when individual bits can be transmitted. In this case, individual characters are not delimited, allowing for very high rates of data transfer.

T

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered on the ARPAnet. The most accurate name for the set of protocols we are describing is the "Internet protocol suite". TCP and IP are just two of the protocols in this suite. Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has become common to use the term TCP/IP to refer to the whole family. Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP.
Termination Resistors
When an electrical signal travels through two different resistance junctions in a transmission line, the impedance mismatch will sometimes cause signal reflection. Signal reflection causes signal distortion, which in turn contributes to communication errors. The solution to this problem is to establish the same impedance at the line ends as in the line itself by terminating them with resistors. It is normally sufficient when the value of the termination resistor equals the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. The resistors should be added near the receiving side.
Throughput
Throughput refers to the performance of data transmission, and is measured by characters actually transmitted or received during a certain period of time. The throughput of a connection depends on CPU, memory, performance between the two devices,pattern of measurement, as well as the performance of the operating system. Throughput is usually measured in bps (bits per second).

U

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)
UART chips control the data transmission and reception of a computer's serial communications devices. The UART chip converts digital data between parallel data inside the PC and serial data from an RS-232/422/485 line driver.

Glossary

A

AHDC/CS (Automatic Hardware Direction Control / Carrier Sense)
Since RS-485 is bidirectional which means the driver is turned ON only when it needs to transmit some data, otherwise it is floating. SUNIX developed a new design to control the direction of driver (ON or OFF) automatically which is called Auto Hardware Direction Control/Carrier Sense. AHDC/CS™ works on the same principle and only turns on the driver when UART needs to transmits some data; but the advantage is that AHDC/CS™ will check to see if the bus is idle or not before it starts transmission.If the bus is not idle (some data flows in the bus), then it will postpone the transmission of UART until the bus is idle.This is for the CS (carrier sense) part.
ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)
ASIC chips are specially designed chips that provide unique functions. ASIC chips can replace general-purpose commercial logic chips, and integrate several functions or logic control blocks into one single chip, lowering manufacturing cost and simplifying circuit board design. SUNIX designed its own ASIC chipset that are used in SUNIX serial products.
Asynchronous Communication
Asynchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which there is no timing requirement for transmission, and in which the start of each individual character is signaled by the transmitting device.
Auto-MDI/MDI-X
Auto-MDI/MDI-X function automatically adjusts between straight-through and crossover cables, namely, the function automatically switch the transmission and reception.
Auto Negotiation
Auto-negotiation function intelligently detects and determines the transmission speeds between 10/100/1000Mbps and Hull-/half-duplex operation modes. This function eliminates the setup of manual switching between speeds and operation speeds. Besides, Auto-negotiation works flexibly with Regular, Fast, and Gigabit Ethernet, so you don't have to upgrade your other networked equipment all together.

B

Baud Rate
Baud rate is related to transmission speed. As far as RS-232/422/485 interfaces are concerned, baud rate is measured in bps (bits per second).

D

DCE (Data Communication Equipment)
DCE stands for Data Communication Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. The basic function of a DCE is to convert data from one interface, such as a digital signal, to another interface, such as an analog signal. One example of DCE is a modem.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. Examples of DTE are computers,printers, and terminals.

E

ELITE Ring
This is SUNIX proprietary feature which provides communication redundancy in shortest time. The recovery time is less than 10milliseconds thus providing stability to Industrial and mission critical networks. Typically, the managed switches are connected in series and the last switch is connected back to the first one. In such connection, you can implement ELITE Ring and Rapid Super Ring technology.

F

FIFO (First In First Out)
FIFO is a term that describes the behavior of some buffers. FIFO buffers send out characters in the order that they are received.FIFO buffers are used to reduce the frequency of interrupt processes for UART chips, such as the C16550C, used in serial communications.
Flow Control
Flow Control is necessary to regulate data flow between 2 devices with dramatically different data transmission speeds (such as a dot matrix serial printer and an RS-232 interface connection). Flow Control is needed to regulate data flow,to ensure that the two devices can communicate with minimal loss of data.
RS-232 communication uses one of two basic approaches to enforce Flow Control.
Software approach: XON/XOFF XON (0x11) and XOFF (0x13) are defined as special control codes for use during communication.The 2 codes are transmitted along with data characters. The operating scheme is straightforward.
Hardware approach: RTS/CTS RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send) are separate signals, sent on separate wires,used for hardware Flow Control. RTS is an output signal that enables/disables data transmission for the other device.CTS is an input signal allowing the other device to enable/disable data transmission. The drawback to this approach is that 2 more wires are needed, but it also provides the capability to send binary data.

I

IEEE802.11 a / b / g

IEEE802.11 is wireless related standard. 802.11a is 5.xG, while both b and g is 2.4G. Of the three, 802.11b can cover the widest area but at the same time its data rate is the lowest with throughput rate around 4-5Mbps. The longer the distance,the lower the throughput rate becomes

O

Optical Isolation
Communications devices connected by long cables may be damaged by the mismatch between ground voltage levels at the two ends of the wire. Optical isolation uses photo cells at both ends of the line to isolate the devices' sensitive components from this type of electrical damage.

P

Parallel Communication
Parallel communication refers to when data is transmitted byte-by-byte, i.e., all bits of one or more bytes are transmitted simultaneously over separate wires.
Passive Multiport Board
A passive multiport board is equipped with UART chips and the necessary peripheral ICs. All the data transmit/receive processing is done by the motherboard CPU. This creates a high workload for the CPU, and consequently can only be used for limited ports. However, passive / non-intelligent multiport boards are an economical and robust solution for small scale applications.
PoE
A solution where electrical current is run to networking hardware over the Ethernet Category 5 or higher data cabling.

R

RS-232
RS-232 is a serial communications standard that provides asynchronous communication capabilities,such as hardware flow control, software flow control, and parity check. It has been widely used for decades.Almost all gears, instruments with digital control interface, and communications devices are equipped with the RS-232 interface. The typical transmission speed of an RS-232 connection is 9600 bps over a maximum distance of 15 meters.
RS-422
RS-422 is a serial communications standard that provides a much longer transmission distance,but fewer signal lines compared to RS-232. RS-422 uses differential transmission technology, and thus provides high-speed transmission of up to 10 Mbps. The maximum transmission distance is 1.2 km at a transmission speed of 9600 bps.
RS-485
RS-485 is an enhanced version of RS-422. It uses a 2-wire bus topology, and is compatible with the RS-422 interface. By using an RS-485 2-wire bus, you can establish a very economical network. However, RS-485 only defines electrical signal specifications; users must define the software protocol themselves.

S

Service Charge
Before starting out-of-warranty repairs, we will send you a "Repair Quotation" with estimated contents. And we will start till receiving your authorization and payment.
Serial Communication
Serial communication refers to when data is transmitted bit-by-bit,or sequentially, over a single wire.
Surge Protection
TOV (Transient Over Voltages), which come from lightning, electrostatic discharges, and other forms of high voltage,is one of the major causes of equipment damage. A surge protector absorbs TOV to effectively protect the equipment.
Switch
Switch is an intelligent device that manages the network traffic smoothly & efficiently. Switches are fundamental part of many networks because they speed things up. Switches allow different nodes (a network connection point, typically a computer) of a network to communicate directly with one another.
Synchronous Communication
Synchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which a common timing signal is established that dictates when individual bits can be transmitted. In this case, individual characters are not delimited, allowing for very high rates of data transfer.

T

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered on the ARPAnet. The most accurate name for the set of protocols we are describing is the "Internet protocol suite". TCP and IP are just two of the protocols in this suite. Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has become common to use the term TCP/IP to refer to the whole family. Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP.
Termination Resistors
When an electrical signal travels through two different resistance junctions in a transmission line, the impedance mismatch will sometimes cause signal reflection. Signal reflection causes signal distortion, which in turn contributes to communication errors. The solution to this problem is to establish the same impedance at the line ends as in the line itself by terminating them with resistors. It is normally sufficient when the value of the termination resistor equals the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. The resistors should be added near the receiving side.
Throughput
Throughput refers to the performance of data transmission, and is measured by characters actually transmitted or received during a certain period of time. The throughput of a connection depends on CPU, memory, performance between the two devices,pattern of measurement, as well as the performance of the operating system. Throughput is usually measured in bps (bits per second).

U

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)
UART chips control the data transmission and reception of a computer's serial communications devices. The UART chip converts digital data between parallel data inside the PC and serial data from an RS-232/422/485 line driver.

Glossary

A

AHDC/CS (Automatic Hardware Direction Control / Carrier Sense)
Since RS-485 is bidirectional which means the driver is turned ON only when it needs to transmit some data, otherwise it is floating. SUNIX developed a new design to control the direction of driver (ON or OFF) automatically which is called Auto Hardware Direction Control/Carrier Sense. AHDC/CS™ works on the same principle and only turns on the driver when UART needs to transmits some data; but the advantage is that AHDC/CS™ will check to see if the bus is idle or not before it starts transmission.If the bus is not idle (some data flows in the bus), then it will postpone the transmission of UART until the bus is idle.This is for the CS (carrier sense) part.
ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)
ASIC chips are specially designed chips that provide unique functions. ASIC chips can replace general-purpose commercial logic chips, and integrate several functions or logic control blocks into one single chip, lowering manufacturing cost and simplifying circuit board design. SUNIX designed its own ASIC chipset that are used in SUNIX serial products.
Asynchronous Communication
Asynchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which there is no timing requirement for transmission, and in which the start of each individual character is signaled by the transmitting device.
Auto-MDI/MDI-X
Auto-MDI/MDI-X function automatically adjusts between straight-through and crossover cables, namely, the function automatically switch the transmission and reception.
Auto Negotiation
Auto-negotiation function intelligently detects and determines the transmission speeds between 10/100/1000Mbps and Hull-/half-duplex operation modes. This function eliminates the setup of manual switching between speeds and operation speeds. Besides, Auto-negotiation works flexibly with Regular, Fast, and Gigabit Ethernet, so you don't have to upgrade your other networked equipment all together.

B

Baud Rate
Baud rate is related to transmission speed. As far as RS-232/422/485 interfaces are concerned, baud rate is measured in bps (bits per second).

D

DCE (Data Communication Equipment)
DCE stands for Data Communication Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. The basic function of a DCE is to convert data from one interface, such as a digital signal, to another interface, such as an analog signal. One example of DCE is a modem.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. Examples of DTE are computers,printers, and terminals.

E

ELITE Ring
This is SUNIX proprietary feature which provides communication redundancy in shortest time. The recovery time is less than 10milliseconds thus providing stability to Industrial and mission critical networks. Typically, the managed switches are connected in series and the last switch is connected back to the first one. In such connection, you can implement ELITE Ring and Rapid Super Ring technology.

F

FIFO (First In First Out)
FIFO is a term that describes the behavior of some buffers. FIFO buffers send out characters in the order that they are received.FIFO buffers are used to reduce the frequency of interrupt processes for UART chips, such as the C16550C, used in serial communications.
Flow Control
Flow Control is necessary to regulate data flow between 2 devices with dramatically different data transmission speeds (such as a dot matrix serial printer and an RS-232 interface connection). Flow Control is needed to regulate data flow,to ensure that the two devices can communicate with minimal loss of data.
RS-232 communication uses one of two basic approaches to enforce Flow Control.
Software approach: XON/XOFF XON (0x11) and XOFF (0x13) are defined as special control codes for use during communication.The 2 codes are transmitted along with data characters. The operating scheme is straightforward.
Hardware approach: RTS/CTS RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send) are separate signals, sent on separate wires,used for hardware Flow Control. RTS is an output signal that enables/disables data transmission for the other device.CTS is an input signal allowing the other device to enable/disable data transmission. The drawback to this approach is that 2 more wires are needed, but it also provides the capability to send binary data.

I

IEEE802.11 a / b / g

IEEE802.11 is wireless related standard. 802.11a is 5.xG, while both b and g is 2.4G. Of the three, 802.11b can cover the widest area but at the same time its data rate is the lowest with throughput rate around 4-5Mbps. The longer the distance,the lower the throughput rate becomes

O

Optical Isolation
Communications devices connected by long cables may be damaged by the mismatch between ground voltage levels at the two ends of the wire. Optical isolation uses photo cells at both ends of the line to isolate the devices' sensitive components from this type of electrical damage.

P

Parallel Communication
Parallel communication refers to when data is transmitted byte-by-byte, i.e., all bits of one or more bytes are transmitted simultaneously over separate wires.
Passive Multiport Board
A passive multiport board is equipped with UART chips and the necessary peripheral ICs. All the data transmit/receive processing is done by the motherboard CPU. This creates a high workload for the CPU, and consequently can only be used for limited ports. However, passive / non-intelligent multiport boards are an economical and robust solution for small scale applications.
PoE
A solution where electrical current is run to networking hardware over the Ethernet Category 5 or higher data cabling.

R

RS-232
RS-232 is a serial communications standard that provides asynchronous communication capabilities,such as hardware flow control, software flow control, and parity check. It has been widely used for decades.Almost all gears, instruments with digital control interface, and communications devices are equipped with the RS-232 interface. The typical transmission speed of an RS-232 connection is 9600 bps over a maximum distance of 15 meters.
RS-422
RS-422 is a serial communications standard that provides a much longer transmission distance,but fewer signal lines compared to RS-232. RS-422 uses differential transmission technology, and thus provides high-speed transmission of up to 10 Mbps. The maximum transmission distance is 1.2 km at a transmission speed of 9600 bps.
RS-485
RS-485 is an enhanced version of RS-422. It uses a 2-wire bus topology, and is compatible with the RS-422 interface. By using an RS-485 2-wire bus, you can establish a very economical network. However, RS-485 only defines electrical signal specifications; users must define the software protocol themselves.

S

Service Charge
Before starting out-of-warranty repairs, we will send you a "Repair Quotation" with estimated contents. And we will start till receiving your authorization and payment.
Serial Communication
Serial communication refers to when data is transmitted bit-by-bit,or sequentially, over a single wire.
Surge Protection
TOV (Transient Over Voltages), which come from lightning, electrostatic discharges, and other forms of high voltage,is one of the major causes of equipment damage. A surge protector absorbs TOV to effectively protect the equipment.
Switch
Switch is an intelligent device that manages the network traffic smoothly & efficiently. Switches are fundamental part of many networks because they speed things up. Switches allow different nodes (a network connection point, typically a computer) of a network to communicate directly with one another.
Synchronous Communication
Synchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which a common timing signal is established that dictates when individual bits can be transmitted. In this case, individual characters are not delimited, allowing for very high rates of data transfer.

T

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered on the ARPAnet. The most accurate name for the set of protocols we are describing is the "Internet protocol suite". TCP and IP are just two of the protocols in this suite. Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has become common to use the term TCP/IP to refer to the whole family. Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP.
Termination Resistors
When an electrical signal travels through two different resistance junctions in a transmission line, the impedance mismatch will sometimes cause signal reflection. Signal reflection causes signal distortion, which in turn contributes to communication errors. The solution to this problem is to establish the same impedance at the line ends as in the line itself by terminating them with resistors. It is normally sufficient when the value of the termination resistor equals the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. The resistors should be added near the receiving side.
Throughput
Throughput refers to the performance of data transmission, and is measured by characters actually transmitted or received during a certain period of time. The throughput of a connection depends on CPU, memory, performance between the two devices,pattern of measurement, as well as the performance of the operating system. Throughput is usually measured in bps (bits per second).

U

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)
UART chips control the data transmission and reception of a computer's serial communications devices. The UART chip converts digital data between parallel data inside the PC and serial data from an RS-232/422/485 line driver.

Glossary

A

AHDC/CS (Automatic Hardware Direction Control / Carrier Sense)
Since RS-485 is bidirectional which means the driver is turned ON only when it needs to transmit some data, otherwise it is floating. SUNIX developed a new design to control the direction of driver (ON or OFF) automatically which is called Auto Hardware Direction Control/Carrier Sense. AHDC/CS™ works on the same principle and only turns on the driver when UART needs to transmits some data; but the advantage is that AHDC/CS™ will check to see if the bus is idle or not before it starts transmission.If the bus is not idle (some data flows in the bus), then it will postpone the transmission of UART until the bus is idle.This is for the CS (carrier sense) part.
ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)
ASIC chips are specially designed chips that provide unique functions. ASIC chips can replace general-purpose commercial logic chips, and integrate several functions or logic control blocks into one single chip, lowering manufacturing cost and simplifying circuit board design. SUNIX designed its own ASIC chipset that are used in SUNIX serial products.
Asynchronous Communication
Asynchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which there is no timing requirement for transmission, and in which the start of each individual character is signaled by the transmitting device.
Auto-MDI/MDI-X
Auto-MDI/MDI-X function automatically adjusts between straight-through and crossover cables, namely, the function automatically switch the transmission and reception.
Auto Negotiation
Auto-negotiation function intelligently detects and determines the transmission speeds between 10/100/1000Mbps and Hull-/half-duplex operation modes. This function eliminates the setup of manual switching between speeds and operation speeds. Besides, Auto-negotiation works flexibly with Regular, Fast, and Gigabit Ethernet, so you don't have to upgrade your other networked equipment all together.

B

Baud Rate
Baud rate is related to transmission speed. As far as RS-232/422/485 interfaces are concerned, baud rate is measured in bps (bits per second).

D

DCE (Data Communication Equipment)
DCE stands for Data Communication Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. The basic function of a DCE is to convert data from one interface, such as a digital signal, to another interface, such as an analog signal. One example of DCE is a modem.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, as defined by the RS-232 specification. Examples of DTE are computers,printers, and terminals.

E

ELITE Ring
This is SUNIX proprietary feature which provides communication redundancy in shortest time. The recovery time is less than 10milliseconds thus providing stability to Industrial and mission critical networks. Typically, the managed switches are connected in series and the last switch is connected back to the first one. In such connection, you can implement ELITE Ring and Rapid Super Ring technology.

F

FIFO (First In First Out)
FIFO is a term that describes the behavior of some buffers. FIFO buffers send out characters in the order that they are received.FIFO buffers are used to reduce the frequency of interrupt processes for UART chips, such as the C16550C, used in serial communications.
Flow Control
Flow Control is necessary to regulate data flow between 2 devices with dramatically different data transmission speeds (such as a dot matrix serial printer and an RS-232 interface connection). Flow Control is needed to regulate data flow,to ensure that the two devices can communicate with minimal loss of data.
RS-232 communication uses one of two basic approaches to enforce Flow Control.
Software approach: XON/XOFF XON (0x11) and XOFF (0x13) are defined as special control codes for use during communication.The 2 codes are transmitted along with data characters. The operating scheme is straightforward.
Hardware approach: RTS/CTS RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send) are separate signals, sent on separate wires,used for hardware Flow Control. RTS is an output signal that enables/disables data transmission for the other device.CTS is an input signal allowing the other device to enable/disable data transmission. The drawback to this approach is that 2 more wires are needed, but it also provides the capability to send binary data.

I

IEEE802.11 a / b / g

IEEE802.11 is wireless related standard. 802.11a is 5.xG, while both b and g is 2.4G. Of the three, 802.11b can cover the widest area but at the same time its data rate is the lowest with throughput rate around 4-5Mbps. The longer the distance,the lower the throughput rate becomes

O

Optical Isolation
Communications devices connected by long cables may be damaged by the mismatch between ground voltage levels at the two ends of the wire. Optical isolation uses photo cells at both ends of the line to isolate the devices' sensitive components from this type of electrical damage.

P

Parallel Communication
Parallel communication refers to when data is transmitted byte-by-byte, i.e., all bits of one or more bytes are transmitted simultaneously over separate wires.
Passive Multiport Board
A passive multiport board is equipped with UART chips and the necessary peripheral ICs. All the data transmit/receive processing is done by the motherboard CPU. This creates a high workload for the CPU, and consequently can only be used for limited ports. However, passive / non-intelligent multiport boards are an economical and robust solution for small scale applications.
PoE
A solution where electrical current is run to networking hardware over the Ethernet Category 5 or higher data cabling.

R

RS-232
RS-232 is a serial communications standard that provides asynchronous communication capabilities,such as hardware flow control, software flow control, and parity check. It has been widely used for decades.Almost all gears, instruments with digital control interface, and communications devices are equipped with the RS-232 interface. The typical transmission speed of an RS-232 connection is 9600 bps over a maximum distance of 15 meters.
RS-422
RS-422 is a serial communications standard that provides a much longer transmission distance,but fewer signal lines compared to RS-232. RS-422 uses differential transmission technology, and thus provides high-speed transmission of up to 10 Mbps. The maximum transmission distance is 1.2 km at a transmission speed of 9600 bps.
RS-485
RS-485 is an enhanced version of RS-422. It uses a 2-wire bus topology, and is compatible with the RS-422 interface. By using an RS-485 2-wire bus, you can establish a very economical network. However, RS-485 only defines electrical signal specifications; users must define the software protocol themselves.

S

Service Charge
Before starting out-of-warranty repairs, we will send you a "Repair Quotation" with estimated contents. And we will start till receiving your authorization and payment.
Serial Communication
Serial communication refers to when data is transmitted bit-by-bit,or sequentially, over a single wire.
Surge Protection
TOV (Transient Over Voltages), which come from lightning, electrostatic discharges, and other forms of high voltage,is one of the major causes of equipment damage. A surge protector absorbs TOV to effectively protect the equipment.
Switch
Switch is an intelligent device that manages the network traffic smoothly & efficiently. Switches are fundamental part of many networks because they speed things up. Switches allow different nodes (a network connection point, typically a computer) of a network to communicate directly with one another.
Synchronous Communication
Synchronous communication refers to digital communication (such as between computers) in which a common timing signal is established that dictates when individual bits can be transmitted. In this case, individual characters are not delimited, allowing for very high rates of data transfer.

T

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
TCP/IP is a set of protocols developed to allow computers to share resources across a network. It was developed by a community of researchers centered on the ARPAnet. The most accurate name for the set of protocols we are describing is the "Internet protocol suite". TCP and IP are just two of the protocols in this suite. Because TCP and IP are the best known of the protocols, it has become common to use the term TCP/IP to refer to the whole family. Note that these computer services can all be provided within the framework of TCP/IP.
Termination Resistors
When an electrical signal travels through two different resistance junctions in a transmission line, the impedance mismatch will sometimes cause signal reflection. Signal reflection causes signal distortion, which in turn contributes to communication errors. The solution to this problem is to establish the same impedance at the line ends as in the line itself by terminating them with resistors. It is normally sufficient when the value of the termination resistor equals the characteristic impedance of the transmission line. The resistors should be added near the receiving side.
Throughput
Throughput refers to the performance of data transmission, and is measured by characters actually transmitted or received during a certain period of time. The throughput of a connection depends on CPU, memory, performance between the two devices,pattern of measurement, as well as the performance of the operating system. Throughput is usually measured in bps (bits per second).

U

UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter)
UART chips control the data transmission and reception of a computer's serial communications devices. The UART chip converts digital data between parallel data inside the PC and serial data from an RS-232/422/485 line driver.